Aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts leaf extracts of Lophira Lanceolata properties effect in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei
Keywords:Leaf Extracts, Lophira Lanceolata, Haematological, Biochemical, histopathological, Antimalarial
This study was to determine the effects of Lophira lanceolata leaf extracts on haematological, biochemical, and histopathological parameters of the mice in the transmission of Plasmodium parasites using mice infected with P.berghei as a model. A total of 196 experimental mice divided into 15 groups in a randomized block design and replicated four times with four mice in each group were used for this study. Thirty six (36) mice were used for acute toxicity test, 50 each for haematological, biochemical, and histopathological analyses. Experimental mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with standard inoculum of 1 x 107 P.berghei parasitized red blood cells on first day (DO). Data analysis was done using student’s t-test and one way analysis of variance with multiple comparison tests. Aqueous leaf extract exerted significant (p < 0.05) non-dose dependent reduction in parasitaemia level with chemosuppression of 48.79%, 24.26%, 29.38% and 80.32% at 10, 100, 200 mg/kg body weight and 5mg/kg body weight chloroquine treated groups respectively. Dose level of 10, 100, 200 mg/ kg body weight of both aqueous and ethanolic leaf extract produced significant increases in aspartate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase, total bilirubin, cholesterol, triglycerides and urea profiles of infected treated mice compared with the control. At 200mg /kg body weight of aqueous extract there was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in weight of liver and kidney organs in the infected treated mice compared with the control. The results of histopathological examinations of the liver organs of the mice were characterized by tissue stromal proliferation, enlarged hepatocytes and disorganized sinusoids and lamina of hepatic cells.The results of histopathological examination of kidneys showed no histopathological changes.The aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Lophira lanceolata plant showed significant antiplasmodium activities comparable to chloroquine drugs.The leaf extracts of Lophira lanceolata plant had gametocytocidal action on P. berghei. The results of the haematological, biochemical and histopathological examinations indicated that caution should be exercised while taking the plant extract as an antimalarial agent.
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