The epigenetic of the panic disorder


  • Harem Othman smail Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Health, Koya University, Koya KOY45, Kurdistan Region-F. R. Iraq



Panic disorder, Epigenetics, candidate genes, hypermethylation, Hypomethylation, chromatin structure, and chromosomal regions


From this review, I discussed the epigenetics of panic disorder .epigenetic is the changes in the heritable phenotype without any change from the DNA sequence. The roles of different types of epigenetics (DNA methylation and chromatin remodeling) have been controversial from one study to another. The researcher focused on the roles of the candidate genes in the development and progress of panic disorder .there different candidate genes located the different chromosomes such as 1q, 2p, 2q, 3, 7, 9, 11, 12q13, 12q23, and 15 that may be used as markers give for the future promise to diagnosis panic disorder in early life span. Recently, no studies have demonstrated gene therapy's roles in treating panic disorder, and the basic contribution of interventions such as exposure, cognitive therapy, relaxation training, and breathing retraining has not yet been identified. Differences between these patients that assess the efficacy of exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy and related neuroplastic changes can be demonstrated by altered protection signal processing and anterior cingulate cortex-amygdala coupling


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How to Cite

smail, H. O. (2023). The epigenetic of the panic disorder. Journal of Experimental and Molecular Biology, 24(1), 59–72.